Description of the machinery and equipment scheme of sunflower oil production.
For the production of one or another type of product according to the technological process, a technological scheme is drawn up, which shows the sequence of operations that are performed, starting from the preparation of raw materials and ending with the receipt of finished products. At a modern processing plant, all technological operations are performed with the help of machines and devices.
The technological scheme, which shows the types of equipment that performs technological operations, is called the machine-equipment scheme (MAS). Regardless of the type of products that are produced, Buyakovi machinery and equipment scheme can be conventionally divided into three sections: preparation of raw materials for production, production of semi-finished products and obtaining finished products.
The main stages of production of oil from sunflower seeds are cleaning the seeds from impurities and drying them, obtaining pure and grinding it, obtaining oil by pressing or extraction, packing the oil in a container.
The seeds that enter the silo for short-term storage are pre-weighed on levers. Seeds can contain a large amount of impurities, therefore, before processing, they are cleaned twice on two- and three-sieve separators, as well as on a magnetic catcher.
Impurities of vegetable origin, which are released on separators, are collected and used in compound feed production.
Cleaned from impurities, the seed is weighed on levers and enters the hopper, from where it is transported to the mine dryer, which consists of several zones. First, the seeds are dried and then cooled. In the process of heat treatment, the moisture content of seeds decreases from 9-15 to 2-7%. The temperature of the seeds during drying is about 50 °C, after cooling – 35 °C. The dried seeds are inspected and then sent to silos for long-term storage or to an intermediate bunker for further rebalancing.
Further seed dressing consists in maximum separation of the shell from the grain. This process involves two independent operations: ruching (shelling of grains) and pure separation of the shell from the kernel (reeling, separation).
Grinding of the seed takes place on a disc mill, where it enters from an intermediate hopper. Rushanka, which comes out of seeds when crushed in a mill, is a mixture of parts that differ in weight, shape, roughness, and size. Whole kernels, their fragments, a number of shell particles of various sizes and shapes, and, finally, the whole seed are found in the russet. Therefore, to separate the shell from the core, aspiration fans of air-sieve sorting machines are mainly used. From such a machine, the kernel is fed into an intermediate hopper, and all other parts of the mixture are additionally processed to separate whole kernels and fragments of sunflower seeds, which, together with whole kernels, are sent for further processing.
After the levers, the kernels of the sunflower seeds are crushed on a five-roll machine. The grinding process takes place in one time, or in two – preliminary and final grinding. During grinding, the cellular structure of sunflower kernels is destroyed, which is necessary to create optimal minds for the most complete and rapid extraction of oil during further pressing or extraction.
The product of grinding – pulp after the machine enters the roaster. In it, thanks to the wet-tash treatment, the optimal plasticity of the product is achieved and the conditions are created to facilitate the squeezing of oil on presses. During roasting, the moisture content of the pulp decreases to 5-7%, the temperature rises to 105-115 °C.
The pulp processed in the roaster (extraction) may be subjected to pressing, (one-time or two-time) extraction or simultaneous carrying out of these processes.
From the screw press, into which the pulp (press) is fed after roasting, two products come out: oil, which contains a large number of kernel particles and is therefore purified in a filter press, and wick, which contains 6-6.5% of oil, which must be obtained from him Therefore, in the future, cake granules are crushed in a hammer crusher and a roller machine, and the grinding product is extracted in an extraction apparatus. The apparatus consists of two columns connected by a bridge, in which screws are mounted, which transport cake particles from the right column to the left. The extracting substance – gasoline, which is a lung solvent – moves countercurrently to the moving cake. Due to the fact that gasoline in a mixture with air ignites at a temperature of about 25°C, the superheat temperature of the process steam at extraction plants should not exceed 22°C.
By diffusion, the oil is extracted from the broken cake cells, dissolving in gasoline. A mixture of oil, gasoline and a certain amount of particles flows from the right column of the extractor and is directed to a sump or cartridge filter.
From the left extraction column of the apparatus, a defatted product called meal is removed. Gasoline residues are released from it, after which the meal is sent to feed mills.
Cleansing from solid parts, a solution of oil in gasoline – the mixture is sent to distillation. In the previous distiller, the mixture is heated to 105-115°C and gasoline vapors are partially driven off from it at atmospheric pressure. In the final distillation, which works under dilution, gasoline residues are removed from the mixture, and the purified oil is submitted for weighing. After weight control, the oil is fed into the machine and packed into a container, and in another machine, the oil container is folded into boxes.